Transformation toward e-learning: experience from the sudden shift to e-courses at COVID-19 time in Central European countries; students’ satisfaction perspective




students’ satisfaction, social presence, student’s intention, online learning, Higher education


This study aims to evaluate transforming toward online-learning, concerning students’ satisfaction, social presence and students’ intention to continue with e-learning in Central European countries, taking the case of Hungarian higher education online courses during COVID- 19 measures. This study finds that masters and undergraduate students’ satisfaction and social presence of online learning courses are neutral with little bias to be positive, also satisfaction has the key role in affecting student’s intention to continue with future online-learning.

Szerző életrajzok

  • Pierre Alassaf, Doctoral School of Management and Business Administration, Szent Istvan University


  • Zsigmond Gábor Szalay, Szent Istvan University, Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences

    associate professor


Allen, M., Bourhis, J., Burrell, N., and Mabry, E. (2002): Comparing student satisfaction with distance education to traditional classroom in higher education: A meta- analysis. The American Journal of Distance Education, 16(2), 83- 97. DOI:

Artz, P. (2006): Improving student satisfaction in online adult education. In C. M. Crawford, R. Carlsen, K. McFerrin, J. Price, R. Weber, D. A. Willis (Eds.), Proceedings of SITE 2006- Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference, pp. 233- 238. Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education. (AACE). Orlando, Florida, USA. ISBN 978-1-880094- 58-7. [online]: [Accessed on Jun 1st 2020].

Carmines, E. G., and Zeller, R. A. (1979): Reliability and validity assessment. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications. DOI:

Chatzoglou, P., Sarigiannidis, L., Vraimaki, E., and Diamantidis, A. (2009): Investigating Greek employees’ intention to use web- based training. Computers and Education. 53(3), 877- 889.

Chen, H. R., and Tseng, H. F. (2012): Factors that influence acceptance of web-based e-learning system for the in-service education of junior high school teachers in Taiwan. Evaluation and Program Planning, 35(3), 398- 406. DOI:

Cobb, S. C. (2009): Social presence and online learning: A current view from a research perspective. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 8 (3), 241–254.

Esterhuyse, M. P., Scholtz, B. M., and Venter, D. (2016): Intention to use and satisfaction of e-learning for training in the corporate context. Interdisciplinary journal of information, knowledge, and management. 11, 347- 365. DOI:

Fatma S. F. (2013): E-Learning Trends Issues and Challenges. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Research. 3 (2), 1- 10.

Fortune, M., Shifflett, B., and Sibley, R. (2006): A comparison of online (high tech) and traditional (high touch) learning in business communication courses in Silicon Valley. Journal of Education for Business, 81(4), 210- 214.

Frehywot, S., Vovides, Y., Talib, Z., Ross, H., Wohltjen, H., Bedada, S., Korhumel, K., Koumare A. K., Scott, J. (2013): E-learning in medical education in resource constrained low and middle-income countries. Human resource health. (2013). 11, Article number: 4. DOI: [Available online]: [Accessed on May 12th 2020].

Fraser, B. J. (2002): Learning environments research: Yesterday, today and tomorrow. In: S. C. Goh and M. S. Khine (Eds.), Studies in educational learning environments: An international perspective (pp. 1–25). River Edge, NJ: World Scientific. DOI:

Gunawardena, C. N. (1995): Social presence theory and implications for interaction and collaborative learning in computer conferences. International Journal of Educational Telecommunications. 1 (2/ 3), 147- 166.

Gunawardena, C. N., and Zittle, F. J. (1997): Social presence as a predictor of satisfaction with a computer-mediated conferencing environment. American Journal of Distance Education. 11, 8- 26.

Kasza, G., and Hangyál, Z. (2018): Stipendium Hungaricum scholarship holders’ expectations and attitudes. Tempus Public Foundation, 2018. Széchenyi 2020 Programme, within Campus Mundi (mobility and internationalisation in higher education) Programme (project number: EFOP-3.4.2-VEKOP-15-2015-00001). ISBN 978-615-5319-57-0.

Lim, J., Kim, M., Chen, S., and Ryder, C. (2008): An empirical investigation of student achievement and satisfaction in different learning environments. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 35(2), 113-119. DOI:

Lindgaard, G., and Dudek, C. (2003): What is this evasive beast we call user satisfaction? Interacting with Computers. 15(3), 429- 452. DOI:

Morton, S. T. (1993): Socialization- related learning, job satisfaction, and commitment for new employees in a federal agency. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Faculty of Virginia polytechnic institute and state university. Blacksburg. Virginia.

Mtebe, J. S. and Raisamo, R. (2014): Investigating students’ behavioral intention to adopt and use mobile learning in higher education in East Africa. The International Journal of Education and Development Using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT). 10 (3), 4- 20.

Nunnally, J.C. (1978): Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). McGraw-Hill. New York

Oliver, R. L. (1999): Whence consumer loyalty?. Journal of Marketing. 63, 33- 44. DOI:

Picciano, A. (2002): Beyond student perceptions; Issues of interaction, presence, and performance in an online course. Journal of asynchronous learning networks. 6 (1), 21-40. DOI:

Puzziferro, M. 2008: Online technologies self-efficacy and self-regulated learning as predictors of final grade and satisfaction in college-level online courses. The American Journal of Distance Education. 22 (2), 72- 89. DOI:

Ryan, J. (2016): “Asian” learners or “internationalized” learners? Taking advantage of international cultural academic flows. East Asia. 33(1), 9–24. DOI:

Reio Jr, T. G., and Crim, S. J. (2013): Social presence and student satisfaction as predictors of online enrollment intent. American Journal of Distance Education, 27(2), 122-133. DOI:

Rourke, L., Anderson, T., Garrison, D. R., and Archer, W. (2001): Assessing social presence in screen text- based computer conferencing. Journal of distance education. 14 (2). ISSN: 0830-0445.

Short, J. A., Williams, E., and Christie, B. (1976): The social psychology or telecommunications. London, England; Wiley.

Strong, R., Irby, T. L., Wynn, J. T., McClure, M. M. (2012): Investigating Students’ Satisfaction with eLearning Courses: The Effect of Learning Environment and Social Presence. Journal of Agricultural Education. 53(3), 98- 110. DOI:

Tarhini, A., Hone, K., and Liu, X. (2013): Extending the TAM model to empirically investigate the students’ behavioral intention to use e-learning in developing countries. Science and Information Conference (SAI), 732–737.

Teo, T. (2014): Preservice teachers’ satisfaction with e-learning. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal. 42(1), 3–6. DOI:

Tse, D. K., Wilton, P. C. (1988): Models of consumer satisfaction formation. J Mark Res, 25 (2), 204- 212. DOI:

Tu, C. H. (2002): The measurement of social presence in an online learning environment. International Journal on E-Learning, April- June, 34- 45. DOI:

Tu, C. H., and McIssac, M. (2002): The relationship of social presence and interaction in online classes. The American Journal of Distance Education. 16 (3), 131- 150. DOI:

Venkatesh, V. Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B, Davis, F. D. (2003): User Acceptance of Information Technology: Toward a Unified View. MIS Quarterly, 27 (3), 425-478. DOI:

Wiers–Jenssen, J., Stensaker, B., and Grogaard, J. B. (2002): Student satisfaction: Towards an empirical deconstruction of the concept. Quality in Higher Education. 8 (2), 183- 195. DOI:




Hasonló cikkek

1-10 a 196-ból/ből

You may also Haladó hasonlósági keresés indítása for this article.